Trade Remedies  

Trade remedies play an exceptionally important role in international trade and are one of our core fields of practice. The imposition of a trade defence measure can dramatically affect the economic situation of the Union industry, importers and producing exporters. There are four categories of trade remedies foreseen under EU law: 

In practice anti-dumping and countervailing measures constitute the most important trade remedies. These measures take the form of anti-dumping or countervailing duties. It should be noted that these duties do not constitute penalties. Rather, the duty may not exceed the dumping margin (or the amount of the subsidy) or the amount necessary to remove the injury, which ever is lesser (the so-called "lesser duty rule"). In respect of anti-dumping or countervailing duties the EU organs may choose between  three forms of duties: ad valorum duties, specific duties and minimum import prices (MIPs). Exporting producers may also offer a voluntary undertaking, according to which it commits to respect a company-specific MIP. 


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